Krashen believes that only when the learner is exposed to “comprehensible input”, that is, a second language input that is slightly higher than his/her existing language skills, so that he/she can focus on meaning (the understanding of the information) instead of the code of the language to produce acquisition. Learners will recognize frequent words, phrases and grammar structure by using listening, reading and repetition. Mechanized language learning will make learners lose interest in a second language quickly.
The characteristics of comprehensive input:
It’s necessary to prepare learning materials that learners can understand, otherwise the input is just a kind of noise for them.
The materials should be interesting and relevant so that the learners are more likely to acquire the language unknowingly.
The main purpose is "acquisition" rather than "learning,"
It requires continuous and interesting extensive reading and a lot of related conversations.
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Effective strategies in the classroom
Beginners: The teacher puts words and phrases in context and gives learners specific instructions.
Intermediate learners: When the learner begins to understand the basic logic of the language, the teacher can let the learner know how to form sentences through games, stories and videos.
Advanced learners: The teacher appropriately increases the difficulty of the materials, and through dialogue, audio and video, teaching phrases and idioms, further improve students' language knowledge and cultivate their insight.
How to apply the input Hypothesis?
Although there are some unfamiliar words or phrases in the text, learners is able to guess their meaning through reading the whole massage.
All languages have unique expressions (phrases/idioms), so explain them before giving the materials to learners to help them translate.
Some advanced or professional expressions seem impossible for learners to translate, so try to use simpler synonyms to reword them.
Visual materials like pictures, drawings and videos help leaners associate unfamiliar words and phrases with the materials so as to understand their meaning.