Most native English speakers/non-native English speakers ( with high level of English proficiency) with a bachelor's degree (or above) can find an ESL teaching job abroad, but most educational institutions (including schools and language centers) require teachers to sign at least a one-year contract, which makes it seem impossible to find a short-term teaching job.
The good news is many short-term teaching jobs are available as long as you stay realistic about your expectations.
And here is some advice for you to find one:
If you don't care about salary, choosing to be a volunteer ESL teacher is a good choice, because you are free to choose the length of your work. Although you won't get any payment, they usually provide you with free accommodation and meals.
Specifically, become a live-in tutor or babysitter. Your host family will not only provide you with free accommodation and meals, but also pay you salary. In addition, you have the opportunity to learn the local language and experience the local culture.
Many countries (such as the European Union) usually have summer ESL camp positions. You will not be paid, but you will gain valuable teaching experience and opportunities to visit new countries (work visas for EU countries are always difficult to obtain).
If you just want to find a short-term paid ESL job and don't care about which country you are working in, you can submit your resume to private schools in countries where work visas are easy to obtain. These schools usually recruit short-term international ESL teachers during the vocations.
If you decide to teach in China with a short period of time, you may also check the how to apply for a short term permit here.